Photo Essays

Marketing the Great War

by Laura C. Mallonee on July 28, 2014

I Want You for U.S. Army. James Montgomery Flagg. New York: Leslie-Judge Co., 1917. The New York Public Library, Rare Book Division. (courtesy of the New York Public Library)

I Want You for U.S. Army. James Montgomery Flagg. New York: Leslie-Judge Co., 1917. The New York Public Library, Rare Book Division. (courtesy of the New York Public Library)

When the United States joined the Allied forces in 1917, the mind of the American citizen was almost as much a battlefield as Europe was. Despite the government’s justification of the war — the fact the German military was sinking American ships and plotting a Mexican take-back of Texas — many citizens felt just as hung-up about their involvement abroad as they do today. So how to convince the doubtful that war is sensible, noble, and patriotic? Queue the propaganda posters, several of which are now on display in the New York Public Library’s latest exhibition, Over Here: WWI and the Fight for the American Mind

You don’t have to be a World War I aficionado to recognize I Want You for U.S. Army from 1917. In the iconic poster, Uncle Sam stands swathed in red, white and blue, pointing sternly — almost accusingly — at his recruits. Artists may take pleasure in knowing his face is actually a self-portrait of its resourceful artist, James Montgomery Flagg, who copied the pose from a British poster depicting Lord Kitchener. More than four million of Flagg’s posters were plastered in towns across America.

(image courtesy of the New York Public Library)

Installation view of Over Here (image courtesy of the New York Public Library)

Other posters in the exhibit highlight the importance of securities, which the government smartly dubbed “Liberty Bonds.” Promoted by Treasury Secretary William Gibs McAdoo, Hollywood celebrities, and the Boy Scouts of America, these notes funneled billions of dollars into the war effort. Joseph Pennell’s war bond poster of 1918 suggests buying them will ensure “Liberty Shall Not Perish from the Earth.” Another by F.C. Amorsolo — printed in United States-controlled Manila in 1917 — depicts a Central Power soldier crucifying an allied troop. Spanish text announces, “Your Liberty Bonds Will Help Put an End to This.” And though women couldn’t yet vote, another poster from 1918 urges them to save their country just like Joan of Arc saved France — by buying war savings stamps.

Like all marketing efforts, these were advertisements for a product Americans paid for: 116,516 young men died in the Great War. While freedom certainly comes with a price, scholars still debate over whether the United States should have gotten involved. In the New Republic, Michael Kazin recently argued that America’s involvement in World War I only served to make “that next and far bloodier global conflict more likely.” 

Joan of Arc Saved France. Haskell Coffin. New York: The United States Printing & Lithograph Co., 1918. The New York Public Library, Picture Collection. (courtesy of the New York Public Library)

Joan of Arc Saved France. Haskell Coffin. New York: The United States Printing & Lithograph Co., 1918. The New York Public Library, Picture Collection. (courtesy of the New York Public Library)

That Liberty Shall Not Perish from the Earth—Buy Liberty Bonds Fourth Liberty Loan. Joseph Pennell. Philadelphia: Ketterlinus, 1918. New York Public Library, The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs. (courtesy of the New York Public Library)

That Liberty Shall Not Perish from the Earth—Buy Liberty Bonds Fourth Liberty Loan. Joseph Pennell. Philadelphia: Ketterlinus, 1918. New York Public Library, The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs. (courtesy of the New York Public Library)

Your Liberty Bond Will Help Stop This—Sus bonos de la libertad ayudarán á dar fin con esto. F. C. Amorsolo. Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1917. The New York Public Library, Picture Collection. (courtesy of the New York Public Library)

Your Liberty Bond Will Help Stop This—Sus bonos de la libertad ayudarán á dar fin con esto. F. C. Amorsolo. Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1917. The New York Public Library, Picture Collection. (courtesy of the New York Public Library)

4 Minute Men—A Message from the Government at Washington. H. Devitt Welsh. Washington, D. C.: Committee on Public Information, 1917. The New York Public Library, Rare Book Division. (courtesy of the New York Public Library)

4 Minute Men—A Message from the Government at Washington. H. Devitt Welsh. Washington, D. C.: Committee on Public Information, 1917. The New York Public Library, Rare Book Division. (courtesy of the New York Public Library)

Over Here: WWI and the Fight for the American Mind will be on view until Feb. 15, 2015 at the Sue and Edgar Wachenheim III Gallery of the Stephen A. Schwarzman Building, New York Public Library (Fifth Avenue at 42nd Street, Midtown, Manhattan)

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  • MtGolfMore

    If you want the definitive history vacation commemorating the “Great War,” come visit the National WWI Museum, in Kansas City, Missouri this year. http://www.theworldwar.org

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