Cities have long been sites for conflicts — wars, racism, religious hatred, and expulsion of the poor — yet, where national states have historically responded by militarizing conflict, cities have tended to triage conflict through commerce and civic activity. But cities are losing this capacity, becoming sites for asymmetric war and urban violence. The search for national security today is a source of urban insecurity … What may be good for the protection of the national state apparatus may come at an increasingly high price to major cities.
— Saskia Sassen in The New Urbanism – In the Future, What will our Cities Look Like?
The day after the Charlie Hebdo attack I was in line at a public notary’s office in São Paulo. The local news, playing on a flat-screen TV meant to placate those of us waiting for an official stamp on this or that official document, showed footage of the massacre. My thoughts were immediately drawn to the corollaries between the attack and the situation surrounding the Danish cartoons published in 2005, which were thereafter published by Charlie Hebdo. There is now a body of thought and analysis from the Danish cartoon crisis (aka the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy) that can be brought to bear on last Wednesday’s attack and the ensuing media storm, such as Peter Hervik’s 2012 study entitled “The Danish Muhammad Cartoon Conflict,” in which he argues:
The structure and logic of the news genre rely on a model that insists on seeing two sides of a conflict, which on one hand dovetails nicely with the narrative of clash of civilization (Peterson 2007), and on the other relies on a domestication of news which resonates with the readers’ view of themselves and the Muslim world. In a study of the Boston Globe’s coverage of the cartoon conflict Mark Allen Peterson concluded that readers are invited to see the events following the publication of the cartoons as a single global event in which rational Western actors engaged in a rational, democratic practice are met with a hostile global response by undifferentiated “Muslims” whose protests are not seen as forms of democratic expression but as irrational actions (Peterson 2007).
It has been well documented by left-leaning news outlets (including OpenDemocracy, Red Flag, Revolution News, and Jacobin Magazine) and media watchdog outfits (including Media Matters for America and Reporters without Borders) how conservatives (Fox News, for instance) have exploited the Charlie Hebdo attack, the following details, reflections and, ultimately, decisions — informed by personal experience and identity as well as professional frequency and access to information — suggest how even the framing of shared condolences and outrage can carry a subversive political agenda in multiple and at times unintended forms.
Accounts of the Charlie Hebdo attack and reactions by eminent thinkers — including Tariq Ramadan, Salman Rushdie, Joe Sacco, Robert Crumb, and Slavoj Žižek — have provided many angles from which to see the situation. Given the role that freeDimensional — an organization I founded to help artists in danger through safe haven and related services — plays, my colleagues and I are expected to react, as are the ranks of most free expression organizations.
Four of the 12 people killed in the attack were cartoon journalists. Over the past decade, freeDimensional has worked with cartoonists in Cameroon, Syria, France, Iran, Malaysia, the United States, and elsewhere. As with many artists and culture workers, cartoonists tend to wear several hats and do a range of work to make a living. Whereas some cartoonists are strictly journalists, many are not and see themselves more broadly, or adjacently, as visual artists. Cartoon journalists often “fall between the cracks” because of their multidisciplinary professional status, and the reactions of journalism watchdog organizations (such as the Committee to Protect Journalists) to an attack on a media outlet that employs cartoonists are often different from their reactions when an independent cartoonist is attacked. In the space of free speech and related safety mechanisms, practices closer to the triad of academia, journalism, and literature have more overlaps and a stronger history of support than other professions. Even if the argument can be made that in countries with high illiteracy rates, cartoonists are more widely read and thus more susceptible to disagreement and pushback, levels of support to independent cartoonists resemble those for visual artists more than they do those for writers — who benefit from the assistance programs like the aforementioned Committee to Protect Journalists and Paris-based Reporters without Borders, as well as the Rory Peck Trust, PEN, International Cities of Refuge, Scholar Rescue Fund, the Scholars at Risk network, and others. This has to do with a few different factors. One is that cartoonists are often freelancers and rarely work for media outlets full-time. In this way, cartoonists experience treatment similar to stringers in the vocational space of journalism. The media conglomerates and businesses that make up this industry tend to support watchdog organizations like those mentioned above, thereby reifying a system that often subjugates all types of freelancers to lower levels of support.
Lastly, cartoonists often resemble other visual artists in their motivation to produce. While many cartoons are commissioned by news outlets, cartoonists tend to produce work of their own volition. Such was the case with Ali Ferzat‘s caricature likening Syria’s Bashar al-Assad to Muammar Gaddafi, which was featured on his personal website and resulted in both of his hands being broken by the president’s thugs. Despite these factors, organizations such as Cartoonists Rights Network International and the Cartoon Movement provide a base of support for independent cartoonists where not much else exists.
Though freeDimensional was listed on both the Index on Censorship and PEN International websites as a supporter of the campaign catalyzed by last Wednesday’s massacre, I have had second thoughts about the political agendas embedded in the various forms of the broader, viral campaign. Many of us reacted quickly in the midst of our shock. It’s expected, naturally, that a free expression organization should have a stance on such things, but I confess that in my haste to express sadness and outrage I agreed with the decision to affiliate with parts of the campaign with which I actually don’t agree. I hope explaining the decisions my colleagues and I made helps deepen the debate surrounding the attack and its ensuing media storm, and gets into the crevices of nuance that sometimes have free expression and social justice largely overlapping and at other times puts them in diametric opposition. Let’s start by looking more closely at two prominent segments of the campaign.
The Index on Censorship action specifically asked that news outlets and free expression organizations broadcast “a section of work from Charlie Hebdo to show support for the journalists and also to make a strong statement to stand up for free speech” at a coordinated time the day after the attack. When Index asked freeDimensional to comply, I skimmed the request email too quickly and didn’t latch onto the specific request to publish a cartoon. Later that day, when I saw the one featured on the Index homepage of two men — a male staffer with a pencil behind his ear and a Muslim man — kissing under the words “L’amour plus fort que la haine” (“Love is stronger than hate,” from the November 8, 2011 edition of Charlie Hebdo) against a backdrop of the smoldering ashes of the magazine’s previous office, I realized that I cannot possibly agree to that. As a gay man who works in the space of social justice, I looked deeply into the instance of the Dutch government deploying an image in the Muslim world — via its embassies and specifically at the visa-accessing moment in consular offices — of two men kissing. I tend to agree with Judith Butler’s take on the situation, which is that state superstructures can easily deploy one minority against another.
There is an additional modus operandi that freeDimensional follows that is not explicitly stated: We do not organizationally speak out or advocate on the social and political issues surrounding an artist’s danger at the same time as we are working to secure an artist’s safety. There is perhaps an expandable correlation between this operating principle and why issuing Charlie Hebdo cartoons virally in the wake of the Paris attack is problematic, and even inappropriate for an organization that regularly works with cartoonists in conflict settings.
The Je suis Charlie meme may have originated with the person controlling the Charlie Hebdo website after the attack, but it has been picked up by organizations such as PEN International and tweeted over a million times. After reading Facebook posts by a range of colleagues and acquaintances from Pakistan, Egypt, and elsewhere in the world, and having discussions with non-white colleagues (or simply those thinking differently) in the US, I began to understand their aversion to the Je suis Charlie marker as well as some corollaries to the debate over the #BlackLivesMatter meme. Similarly, the internet is rife with alternative ‘#JeSuis __’ hashtags, such as JeSuisAhmed, the rallying cry used to commemorate the murder of the Muslim police officer Ahmed Merabet, who was killed while protecting the Charlie Hebdo office during the attack, and JeSuisKhaledIdris for the Eritrean refugee killed this week in Dresden. These social media counter narratives insist that not all people “are” Charlie, even if they are greatly saddened by what happened to the journalists in last week’s attack.
There are other images and quotes trending that evoke the quality of “liberty” and that become problematic when coupled with various political agendas and French national rhetoric specifically. In the immediate aftermath of the attack, as Scott Long put it, we are “manhandled by these moments of mass outrage.”
What happened last Wednesday in Paris is not only gruesome and inhumane, but affronts our sensibilities and the codes of justice handed down by our forefathers. While relevant because they reify values like liberty and free expression required for the functioning of a just society, it is important to remember that these ethical theories of justice were framed by white men from the West who knew less about the functioning of the world than any person with internet access might today. Many of these epistemic theories of truth are normative in nature, and carry residuals of modernization theory. The considerations of a free expression network such as freeDimensional, which works with people all over the world, are necessarily different from those of western-based NGOs, which work for people in the same places yet retain hierarchical characteristics of the limited development theories that emerged at the end of colonization, and are easily debunked by applying a social justice or community organizing lens.
It seems impossible for the current state of affairs to normalize unless we are willing to have some serious conversations about the role of dominant culture in maintaining a colonial status quo and its complicity in a multi-source terrorism that has been sired by global inequity. What I most want to communicate and would ask that freeDimensional communicate (something that is not wholly up to me) is that we are outraged by what has happened, we are sad, we are distraught, and that we are thinking deeply on what to do both in the immediate aftermath and in the long run to make the world a more equitable place for living and supporting artists who reflect our world back to us in magnificent, haunting, courageous, and provocative ways. While I won’t simply remove freeDimensional’s name from the viral campaign (if that is even possible), I do suggest that we dig deeper into the messiness and attempt to have this conversation removed of political rhetoric in our most humble voices and across a range of human experiences, lest what happened at the office of Charlie Hebdo (and elsewhere) becomes a powder keg for further violence.
Bobby Wilson Combats Indigenous Stereotypes Through Humor
The artist-performer’s career undulates, ever so gracefully, across multiple mediums and registers of generational pain, healing laughter, and Indigenous joy.
Rare 19th-Century Silhouette Album’s Secrets Unlocked
Traveling portrait artist William Bache’s album depicts famous figures like Thomas Jefferson as well as people whose identity was previously unknown.
Nevada Museum of Art Presents Adaline Kent: The Click of Authenticity
For the first time in nearly 60 years, the innovative yet under-recognized artist is the subject of a retrospective exhibition. On view in Reno, Nevada.
Artists Show What They Can Do With a Google Phone’s Camera
Works by 20 photographers are now on view in Manhattan for the seventh season and 100th project coming out of the Google Creator Labs.
Met Museum Kicked Me Out for Praying to My Ancestral Gods
My danced prayer to looted Cambodian antiquities was too much for the New York museum.
The Public Theater in NYC Presents Plays for the Plague Year
Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Suzan-Lori Parks’s theatrical concert chronicles the 2020 lockdown and the hope and perseverance that emerged from it.
A Museum Guard’s Ode to the Healing Power of Art
In All the Beauty in the World, Patrick Bringley revisits the many ways that art meets life, and life art, and how death is often the bridge between them.
UK Extends Export Ban on Coveted “Portrait of Omai”
London’s National Portrait Gallery was given a few months to acquire the work, which depicts the first Polynesian visitor to the UK.
Mondays at Pratt Institute: Weekly Openings of Work by Graduating Artists
Free and open to the public, Pratt Shows celebrate the school’s graduating students. MFA and BFA work on view this spring in Brooklyn, New York.
The Sculptor Making Art With Loved Ones’ Ashes
Inspired by the three-year anniversary of the COVID-19 pandemic, Julian Stair’s exhibition honors the lives of eight people with cinerary jars.
Art Institute of Chicago Under Scrutiny Over Sacred Nepali Necklace
The 17th-century object remains on display at the Chicago museum despite Nepal’s calls for repatriation.
LSU School of Art Grants Highest MFA Stipends in the Southern US
With funded assistantships, full tuition waivers, and generous stipends, Louisiana State University helps students lay the groundwork for a successful lifelong art practice.
Art Problems: How Do I Get a Public Art Commission?
Want to leave a mark on your city or town, but don’t know where to start? Paddy Johnson has some tips.
Rose B. Simpson Embeds Ancestral Histories in Clay
She has taken clay and used it to recall its ancestral roots in Pueblo culture and address the present history of postcolonial recovery and ongoing trauma.
Some fine points here, but whatever the agenda of the Dutch citizenship video — the “state superstructure deploying one minority against another” by forcing immigrants pursuing Dutch citizenship to watch two men kiss– there really is no problem with demanding that new citizens of any country acknowledge the humanity of any resident group. Indeed, if a would-be citizen’s sensibilities are offended by such realities, that is their issue, not that of the country. And who are we to presume that the Muslim population would take offense at such a video? Sure, the fundamentalists almost certainly would, but we shouldn’t care about offending them any more than we care about offending fundamentalist Christians or Jews who would be no less outraged by the same video. Likewise, the cartoon you were upset about publishing isn’t problematic; the people who will be upset by it are.
Hi HH .. first, I’d say I ‘care’ about offending (or rather not offending) Muslims, Jews, and Christians all at the same level.
The issue I see with the Dutch policy is that the video was issued in select consulates in the ‘Muslim world’ rather than through an across-the-board approach, which suggests that it was quite targeted to one worldview. Here, I’ll jump to a tangent, which is the notion of Coyote Capitalism … in this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Bmk9NkuSUs (which explains the concept further) journalist, Jeffrey Kaye says that ‘migrants are a part of the economic machinery’ … I bring this up because your observation HH doesn’t take into consideration that the Dutch government (as does the US government) tinkers with the push and pull of migrants and to understand this targeted policy as a part of that tinkering is quite different than seeing the Dutch government as standing up for its current citizens gay rights.
Lastly, I wasn’t upset about publishing the cartoon .. I was analytical. Only a slightly different emotion, I suppose:) Thanks for commenting, HH.
Thank you for the follow-up and clarification, Todd. Much appreciated.
Excellent observations. From my perspective the problem with the “kissing” cartoon is the reality that queer liberation is often achieved along racial lines, which contradicts the cartoon’s universalist politics. It’s a problematic allegiance for the Dutch (or French, or American) government to claim given that freedoms for queer people of color are still limited on the basis of racism and anti-Muslim bigotry.
There were a few additions to (that were oversights to not include in) my original piece.
The International Cities of Refuge Network (www.icorn.org) does support cartoonists through their hosting services. Also, La Maison des Journalistes (http://www.maisondesjournalistes.org) in Paris helps cartoon journalists. Lastly, I failed to mention the Danish organization FREEMUSE (www.freemuse.org) which works with musicians and music journalists around the world.
so dead Jews were not noticed at all by the author.
hi Vicki, Which dead Jews are you referring too? My analysis is in reference to the media/ campaign aftermath of the Charlie Hebdo attack. I also did not speak about Nigerians in the article even if they are one my mind … and certainly included in the closing passage referring to a ‘range of human experience’ … as are Jews. Thanks for commenting.
I think what Vicki was trying to say is that in many medias (mostly French ones) the other victims such as the muslim policeman, the policewoman from Martinique and the Jews who were shot that week in Paris by the same group were cited. While it started with Charb and his friends, it didn’t end with them for French people. That’s why some tv channels talk about more Jews wanting to leave France (see also #jesuisjuif) or French Muslims identifying with the muslim policeman who was shot. For the people of France, they are all the victims, not just Charlie Hebdo (but Charlie is definitively a symbol). It seems to be somewhat “lost in translation” in North American medias.
Thanks PtiteConversation for explaining what Vicki may mean…I wish she would have said more than just that quip. The article was written mostly the two days after the attack even if it wasn’t published until a week later… I refer to the potential of ensuing violence at the end, and unfortunately that has come true. However, the nuance I was most trying to ‘get at’ in the article is the difference between ‘free expression’ and ‘social justice’ reactions to the attack, which is (in my opinion) the difference between saying, ‘hey, we have the right to publish those cartoons’ and ‘hey, those cartoons were racist and offended a lot of people’. While she is going a different route, Vicki’s comment irks me because it resembles reactions to the racial violence organizing in the US whereby #BlackLivesMatter was countered with ‘#AllLifesMatter or (after the NYC policemen were slain) #BlueLivesMatter, rhetorical devices that attempt to obfuscate the responsibility of all people (and police therein) to reject the systemic, unjust treatment of a particular demographic … and begin to equate the egregious phenomenon of extrajudicial violence against black people to the ‘troubles we all have’, which I don’t hold as true. I believe there are universal lessons we can take from these situations that supersede the listing of every group who is aggrieved (or could be) by the current state of affairs.
I’m not sure she was going as far as that…though I cannot talk in Vicki’s name. So I don’t know her intentions, I can only guess them. What I do know for sure is that the muslim policeman, Ahmed Merabet, actually died the same day as the cartoonists because he was doing the security at Charlie Hebdo, which is why #JeSuisAhmed started the same day as #JeSuisCharlie. Clarissa Jean-Philippe, the Martiniquese policewoman, died the next day. The attack at the Jewish supermarket was soon after that (and there has been comparisons to a similar attack in 2014 that happened at a Jewish Museum in Brussels – you can also count the Jewish school in Toulouse from 2012 too I guess). For France it wasn’t one incident, and then one somewhat related incident. It’s 1 attack that lasted days, as much as some foreign medias may give the impression that it’s not (but the inaccuracy doesn’t stop there, see the reactions from the tv show Le Petit Journal about the way Fox News reported the whole affair if you want to laugh a little bit). It really resonated with different communities in France. For many French (not all) you can be both Charlie (free speech) and Ahmed (Muslim). I know what happened in the US in the last few months and is still happening…but you’re talking about Paris, not NYC. I don’t mean this to offend you because I know the situation in America and as a black woman it has touched me to see this situation unfold. But in that case it’s mostly a question of accuracy (at least for me). Some cartoonists who did their tribute to Charlie later than the first reactions also added the other victims (an example (see the list of names appearing in the comic) http://www.sanaa-k.com/2015/01/j-peux-pas-vous-dire-plus.html). In short: the other victims are relevant to the incident for France. In the (lastest) list of names made by people online, all the victims are acknowledged (even by the many reporters who also talked in details about free speech). Then again you did say you were in São Paulo so I have no idea what you watched, but it’s more clear when you see the primary sources on the matter. The divide between the way anglosaxons and francophone medias report the event is also clear. Side note: if you or someone reading this can read french, you might want to check Le Monde, France 2, maybe TV5 for more informations, or really any sources based in France. Hope I was somewhat clear. I just really wanted to add more infos because so many things can be left out depending on what you watch, read, and the cultural background.
EDIT: oops I didn’t copy the link correctly. Let me try again (just need to scrowl up to see the comic: http://www.sanaa-k.com/2015/01/j-peux-pas-vous-dire-plus.html#anchorComment
EDIT 2: corrected some typos and added some details
Hi again PtiteConvo .. thanks for writing. First off, let me say that I do not take offense to anything you’ve written, and I’m happy to be in conversation.
– Regarding the related violence, before and after the Charlie Hebdo attack, I referenced this in my original piece but some of the nuance was lost in the editing process (which I did not control) … I’ll paste in the original final paragraph here for your viewing:
“Given the series of violent eruptions in which the Charlie Hebdo attack is situated globally, it seems impossible for the messy state of
affairs to normalize unless we are willing to have some serious conversations about the role of dominant culture in both maintaining a colonial status quo and its complicity in a multi-source terrorism that global inequity has sired. Therefore, what I most want to communicate and would ask that freeDimensional communicate (something that is not wholly up to me) is that we are outraged by what has happened … we are sad, we are distraught, we
are thinking deeply on what to do both in the immediate aftermath and in the long run to make the world a more equitable place for living and supporting artists who reflect our world back to us in magnificent, haunting, courageous, and provocative ways. However, I
do not choose to simply remove freeDimensional’s name from the viral campaign (if that is even possible), but to suggest that we dig deeper into the messiness and attempt to have this conversation removed of political rhetoric in our most humble voices and across a range of human experiences, lest what happened at the offices of Charlie Hebdo (and elsewhere) becomes a powder keg for further violence.”
– I can imagine that coverage is different in Paris and NYC and I attempt to stay atop the nuanced differences in French and US media styles. Living in Sao Paulo — a city bigger than Paris and NYC together, and with a strong European facet to its personality — there is no shortage of coverage/access to coverage as well as debate ‘in the streets’ … SP is much like other big cities in its complex, immigrant make-up, so I’d say people here were affected by and opinionated about the attack. But perhaps more central to my analysis is the past decade of building a free expression organization with partners all over the world.
– I have followed many cartoonist tributes to the slain Charlie Hebdo team, and what I’m talking about in the article is a different style of coordinated response than what I encountered from cartoonists … In the article, I am referring to the campaign for free expression organizations and major news outlets (one of the major Sao Paulo newspapers included) to republish Hebdo cartoons… entities that have much farther reach and set public opinion in ways that individual grievers (cartoonists among them) cannot.
– I really enjoy talking with you. Thank you for sharing the link … and your thoughts.
*Currently, I’m having a blog discussion with a fellow artist, Jacob Wren in which I share some expanded thoughts on similar issues. I welcome you to give it a glance — https://medium.com/@toddlester_75142/tangentially-yours-a-conversation-series-with-jacob-wren-1-f798120c8a3a
Comments are closed.