News

CIA Declassifies Maps from 75 Years of Surveillance

To mark the 75th anniversary of its Cartography Center, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) shares decades of declassified maps.

CIA Cartography Center maps
“The Leningrad Front” (1943) (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)

The Cartography Center of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) started in October of 1941 with hand-drawn maps that plotted the geographic data of World War II. The Center today harnesses more advanced, digital technologies, but the goal remains the same: to visually convey data in a way that will be understandable for a broad intelligence audience. For the Center’s 75th anniversary, the CIA announced last month that it was releasing several albums of declassified maps, which represent its decades of activity, onto Flickr. From the Russian front of 1942 to the threatened elephant populations of Africa in 2013, the maps are an archive of American involvement in global conflicts and crises.

CIA Cartography Center maps
President John F. Kennedy with a CIA map of communist rebel areas in Vietnam (1961) (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)

The CIA states on its site that the Center’s “chief objectives are to analyze geospatial information, extract intelligence-related geodata, and present the information visually in creative and effective ways for maximum understanding by intelligence consumers.” As Greg Miller at National Geographic noted, one of the images shows President George W. Bush and members of his staff viewing a CIA map on September 29, 2001, reflecting a period when the terrain and cartography of Afghanistan was surveyed ahead of the American invasion.

Likewise, each map is a time capsule of that era’s international issues. The 1940s include a 1942 map of German dialects, and a 1944 map of concentration camps in the country. The 1950s, with innovative photomechanical reproduction and precast lead letters, saw maps on the Korean War and railroad construction in Communist China. The 1960s are punctuated by the Cuban Missile Crisis and Vietnam War, while the 1970s, with increasing map automation, contain charts of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and the Arab oil embargo.

CIA Cartography Center maps
President Franklin D. Roosevelt with an OSS globe (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)

The 1980s maps involve the Falklands War and the Iran–Iraq War, while the 1990s, through newly sharp 3D perspectives and animations, have maps addressing African and Central American humanitarian emergencies, as well as the location of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs). More recently, the 2000s digital maps analyze conflict in the Middle East and nuclear developments in Iran and North Korea, and 2010s maps examine the allocation of water resources in Mexico, and malaria risk in Southeast Asia.

“A map should be aesthetically pleasing, thought-provoking, and communicative,” stated the CIA Cartography Center’s founder, Arthur H. Robinson. And intelligence maps are a distinct design challenge, as they can influence governmental strategy and policy. However based on President-elect Trump’s disinterest in intelligence briefings, perhaps it’s time for the CIA to enter a new era of covert Tweeting for this administration’s cartography needs.

Below are some examples of the declassified CIA maps, along with cartography tool photographs that represent the early years when Office of Strategic Services (OSS) cartographers created their maps by hand.

CIA Cartography Center maps
“The Russian Front in Review” (1942) (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
CIA Cartography Center maps
A ten-point divider used to divide the distance between two points into ten equal parts (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
CIA Cartography Center maps
Tunisia (1943) (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
CIA Cartography Center maps
Components of a Stanley Improved Pantograph, used to reproduce, enlarge, or reduce a map to scale (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
CIA Cartography Center maps
“Germany Concentration Camps” (June 1944) (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
CIA Cartography Center maps
Stanley Improved Pantograph, used to reproduce, enlarge, or reduce a map to scale (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
CIA Cartography Center maps
“Vegetable Tannins: Production and International Trade” (1950) (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
CIA Cartography Center maps
Barch‐Payzant Lettering Pens for map drawing (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
CIA Cartography Center maps
“Berlin: Zonal Border Crossing Points” (1960s) (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
CIA Cartography Center maps
Austin Photo Interpretometer (Stereoscope), for 3D viewing of stereo pairs of aerial photography (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
"Antarctica Exploration and Claims" (February 1956) (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
“Antarctica Exploration and Claims” (February 1956) (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
CIA Cartography Center maps
Dietzgen Champion Drawing Instruments for map drafting (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
CIA Cartography Center maps
“Surface-to-Air Missile Activity in Cuba” (1962) (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
CIA Cartography Center maps
Mechanical Protractor, used to draw or measure accurate angles from one point to another on a map projection (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
CIA Cartography Center maps
“Burma Climatic Regimes” (1968) (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
CIA Cartography Center maps
Keuffel & Esser 20.5-inch Slide Rule, used by cartographers for mathematical calculations (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
CIA Cartography Center maps
“Indonesia Oil & Gas” (1980s) (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
CIA Cartography Center maps
Speedball Pens, Model LC‐4, used for mapmaking (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
CIA Cartography Center maps
“Afghanistan’s Konar Valley” (2001) (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
Triangular 24-Inch Engineering Scale, used for linear measurements from maps and scale diagrams (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
Triangular 24-Inch Engineering Scale, used for linear measurements from maps and scale diagrams (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
CIA Cartography Center maps
“African Elephant Range: Population and Threats” (2013) (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
Reducing Glass, used by cartographers to visualize their draft lines at the final size (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)
Reducing Glass, used by cartographers to visualize their draft lines at the final size (via Central Intelligence Agency/Flickr)

View more declassified maps from the CIA Cartography Center on Flickr

comments (0)