One of the looted works seized in Operation Demetra, probably a 1st century CE portrait of a member of the Roman imperial family, the Julio-Claudians (image courtesy of Europol)

On July 4, 2018, Europol and the Italian Carabinieri’s Division for the Protection of Cultural Heritage announced the culmination of “Operation Demetra.” This criminal investigation, tracking a network of Sicilian archaeological looters and international traffickers, resulted in dawn raids on 40 houses in 4 countries and the arrest or detention of 23 people, and the seizure of some 20,000 plundered objects worth an estimated €40 million (~$46.6 million).

The Europol press release was accompanied by an uncaptioned photograph of a beautiful, naturalistic marble portrait head, presumably one of the works seized in the raids. The portrait depicts a young, beardless man wearing a veil over the back of his head. The figure has a protruding, dimpled chin, and very small ears, but there are few signs of individualization here. On the basis of its similarity to other works, the portrait can be plausibly identified as a young man of the Roman imperial family from the early 1st century CE. The sculptor was skillful at capturing in stone the appearance of soft, youthful skin as it stretches over cheekbones and puckers out at the corner of the mouth The nose and left cheek are damaged, but otherwise, the piece seems to be in extraordinarily fine condition. It would be a centerpiece in the ancient gallery of any museum in the world today.

Portrait of Caligula, said to have been found near Marino, Lago Albano. Purchased by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1914 from Alfredo Barsanti, Rome (image courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art)

The head has much in common with other Roman imperial portraits, but the Europol photograph is unique. The depiction is not at all how we’ve become accustomed to seeing ancient sculpture presented. Museum and art market photography usually features pieces like this against a seamless muslin backdrop. The backdrop can be black or gray or, for a little spice, it can fade from black to gray or from dark gray to light. The neutral color, the absence of a horizon line and of any representational detail other than the single object itself, work together to situate the piece in an other-worldly realm, one far removed from any actual specific, physical location. The non-space of these official photographs complements the museum rhetoric of universality. This rhetoric is grounded in a philosophy of art that goes back to Immanuel Kant.

Implicitly in their architecture and explicitly in their labels, art museums frame their holdings as manifestations of creativity, genius, truth, and beauty — ostensibly universal and timeless human values. This makes the objects’ installation in a museum, often far removed from the particular culture and setting for which they were created and where they may still hold very different meanings, seem unproblematic and even natural. Sometimes the rhetoric of universality takes on a more literal and pragmatic meaning, as when self-proclaimed “universal museums” claim the right to own — and retain — objects from every corner of the globe, regardless of the dubious circumstances by which they may have acquired them. The two concepts of universality are, of course, mutually reinforcing; and the gray vacuum photographs of record are part and parcel of this ideological apparatus.

View of the Roman portrait gallery of the Cleveland Museum of Art, taken in 2013. The large head in the foreground at left is a portrait of Drusus purchased by the museum in 2012. It was sold with provenance documents indicating an ownership history going back to the 19th century. These documents turned out to be false; the piece had in fact been stolen from a small museum near Naples in 1944. It was returned to Italy in 2017. The large bronze statue in the foreground on the right is identified as Marcus Aurelius. It is likely that it was one of a large number of bronzes that were looted from an archaeological site in southern Turkey called Bubon in the 1960s and sold to American collectors and museums in subsequent decades (photo by and courtesy the author)

The Europol press release photo is the antithesis of the gray vacuum images. It is teeming with details that anchor the ancient portrait in a very particular and very mundane realm. The most startling of these details are the two slippers partially visible along the lower edge on either side of the head. These must be the slippered feet of the photographer himself, as he stood over the marble head and aimed his camera at the floor. The head is lying on what looks like a nice Persian carpet, but our photographer was apparently untroubled by the disarray surrounding it: a pen, whose metal clip catches the light in the image’s upper left corner; two pieces of battered wooden furniture; what appears to be an ornate but broken gilded plaster picture frame; and a blue crocheted blanket. It would not have taken much to push all this detritus out of the frame of the photograph, but our cameraman did not bother. He also apparently couldn’t be bothered, before snapping the picture, to turn off his TV, the blue glow of which illuminates the portrait’s proper right side. 

Members of the Benin Punitive Expedition of 1897, with some of their loot (copyright British Museum)

These details (or puncta, for all you Roland Barthes fans out there) not only root the image in a specific earthly setting; they also introduce a concept art world insiders usually take pains to hide from the general public: the inevitably messy human agency behind the removal and relocation of artworks or cultural objects from their original context to their end destination in a gallery display. Europol didn’t release any information about the photograph itself, and it is possible that it was taken by one of the investigators. The slippered feet, however, suggest a different actor, someone in possession of the looted head in his own home. We know from other cases of looted antiquities that middlemen often photographed their wares after receiving them from the tombaroli (grave-robbers) who dug them out of the ground. The photographs were used to shop the pieces around to potential buyers. Perhaps this photograph was meant to serve as the basis for negotiations over price between the middleman and the dealer whose role in this network was to smuggle the pieces out of Italy to Munich, where, the investigators claim, they were supplied with false provenance papers and sold at auction. No doubt this laundering entailed new photography as well.

Gallery devoted to the material from Benin, in the Sainsbury wing of the British Museum (photo by and courtesy the author)

The Europol photograph is a stark reminder that many of those polished marble masterpieces on their spotlit museum pedestals were once merely raw goods on the floor of a crook’s cluttered living room. The alchemy is usually carefully hidden from view; museums do everything they can to keep our attention away from the men behind the curtain. In its power to reveal more profound truths about museum objects, the Europol photograph recalls the famous image of those manspreading colonialists, the members of the British Punitive Expedition, seated atop their loot at Benin in 1897. That is the “before” image to be paired with the loot’s “after” images, both in photographs of record and in the beautiful modernist grid in the new Sainsbury African Galleries of the British Museum. The fact that these “before” photographs still have the power to shock years, and even decades, after debates about “decolonizing the museum” have become widespread, and the looting of antiquities is widely recognized as a scourge, reveals how thoroughly we’ve been conditioned by museum rhetoric of beauty and universality. The truth is that the route to the gallery is often ugly, built on crime, brute force, and lies. When we catch a glimpse of that reality, we must not look away.

Elizabeth Marlowe is an associate professor of Ancient & Medieval Art and museum studies at Colgate University. She is the author of Shaky Ground: Context, Connoisseurship and the History of Roman...

6 replies on “Seizure of Looted Antiquities Illuminates What Museums Want Hidden”

  1. Great article! I liked this articulation of the “rhetoric of universality.” I’ve found some other interesting sources on looted antiquities, such as, but I appreciate your thinking on the broader implications and perceptual issues at work here.

  2. Not all ancient art was pilfered from hapless locals or stolen from graves. It is a mixed bag.
    Many impassioned collectors would point out that they have provided a safe haven for works of art that would have been otherwise destroyed (Taliban, Christian Missionaries in the Arctic and Africa eg.) As far as the photograph….no smuggler would have hired a restorer or base maker to mount this heavy head on a pedestal, which is something only a person with great skill would undertake. Serious collectors and dealers would not have placed this gorgeous object on a floor and left their feet in the shot… guess…and educated guess (I work for several dealers and collectors doing photography), it was an ill informed collector taking a shot for insurance purposes…or a thief….certainly no serious collector or dealer. Loved your detective analysis of the blue TV glow…..done correctly, a piece like this would look exquisite if photographed by….

    1. It is unlikely that the photograph was taken by a collector for insurance purposes because the head was seized by the Italian Carabinieri; it had not reached the legitimate art market yet. Not sure why you say no smuggler would have had the head mounted; clearly one did.

    2. I appreciate that not every collector has malicious intent. That’s said, I hardly think we can credit collectors as beneficent agents in a battle to save objects from malactors our own governments prop up. How convenient it is to save art from the Taliban and benefit from that collecting when it was a number of Western (collecting) nations that help put them in power. Same in Africa, Indgineous America, and on and on. This is colonialism today. You can’t start a house on fire and then claim credit for helping save its contents. Yes, it’s all very complicated, but I think we would all benefit from getting a bit more honest about how art is traded. The museum community and the patrons who help build collections need to do more to deal with the whole supply chain rather than turn a blind eye on what happened before the object came up for possible accession. Things are changing and that’s a good thing, but there is still more work to be done.

  3. This is a fine editorial, but I would have liked a great deal more information about the rest of the seized artifacts.

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