From Philadelphia to Bristol, long-debated monuments that commemorate Confederate figures and imperialist leaders are being toppled by protestors or removed by local authorities. The push to remove these dubious statues worldwide is simultaneous to historic protests against racial inequality and police brutality against Black people.
The recent events mark a sea change after decades of advocacy to remove these racist monuments. The following is a comprehensive, although not exhaustive, roundup of the memorials that have been taken down in Europe and the United States in just the past week.
In Birmingham, Alabama, protestors took down the statute of Charles Linn, a Confederate Navy captain, and attempted to destroy a nearby obelisk monument to Confederate soldiers and sailors. Birmingham Mayor Randall Woodfin then stepped with an order to remove the statue on June 3.
The statue was of Charles Linn, a Confederate Navy captain. pic.twitter.com/kAPhscdco1
— eat your local landlord (@hoeing787) June 1, 2020
In the city of Mobile, the local government removed a statue of Confederate navy officer Raphael Semmes days after it was tagged by protesters.
This morning, June 9, Antwerp authorities removed a statue of the country’s monarch Leopold II from the city’s Ekeren district and transferred it to the Middelheim Museum, where it will be stored. The charred statute was set on fire last week at the hands of protesters.
THEY’VE TAKEN DOWN BELGIAN KING LEOPOLD II WHO WAS A MURDEROUS TYRANT WHO BUTCHERED CONGO 😍 pic.twitter.com/zmWAboIasq
— Hasan Patel 🌹 (@CorbynistaTeen) June 9, 2020
King Leopold II was responsible for the genocide of millions of Congolese people under his colonial rule. He exploited the territory’s resources for his personal gain while enacting brutal practices like forced labor, child colonies, imprisonment and hostage-taking, mutilation, and other sadistic punishments.
In 2018, local authorities added a plaque to the statue to provide historical context about Leopold II’s colonial crimes.
In another incident, protests defaced a bust of the former Belgian king in the city of Ghent with red paint and covered its head with a cloth that said, “I can’t breathe.”
The bust of King Leopold II of Belgium, who orchestrated the colonial genocide of 10 million Congolese people, has been defaced by protesters in Ghent, Belgium.
The movement against racism and injustice is truly global! pic.twitter.com/MZLlX7eeFZ
— Facts About Africa (@OnlyAfricaFacts) June 3, 2020
Protesters chopped off the head of a Christopher Columbus statue in Boston’s North End on the morning of June 10. The statue was defaced with red paint earlier this week. Boston Mayor Marty Walsh said that the statue will put in storage as discussions about the “historic meaning” of the incident and the future of the monument commence.
— Mark Parkinson (@MParkBoston25) June 10, 2020
The city of Louisville removed a 1913 statue of Confederate soldier John B. Castleman on June 8.
Kentucky Governor Andy Beshear said last week that a statue of Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy during the Civil War, should be removed from the Kentucky Capitol.
— Terrence Daniels (Captain 🍀 Planet) (@Terrence_STR) June 8, 2020
“I don’t think another child should come into this Capitol and look up at a statue of someone who supported slavery,” the governor said.
Meanwhile, the University of Kentucky in Lexington announced that it will remove a controversial mural on its campus that students have deemed racist for its depictions of Black and Native American people.
In Oxford, Mississippi, protesters sprayed the phrase “spiritual genocide” and stamped blood-red handprints on a Confederate monument at the University of Mississippi.
On May 31, protesters set a fire in Fayetteville’s Market House, a site where slave auctions were held.
In Raleigh, demonstrators tagged a monument to the soldiers of the Confederate States of America with graffiti.
In Charleston, South Carolina protesters spraypainted a Confederate statue in Charleston with phrases like “BLM” and “traitors.”
On June 3, Philadelphia officials removed the statue of the city’s former mayor and police commissioner, Frank Rizzo. As police commissioner between 1968–71, Rizzo enacted a “tough on crime” policy that encouraged police brutality against the city’s Black residents. And as mayor from 1972–80, he fought against desegregation, blocked public housing programs, and called on his constituents to “vote white.”
“The statue represented bigotry, hatred and oppression for too many people, for too long,” said Philadelphia’s current mayor, Jim Kenney, who signed an executive order to remove the statue. Kenney added that the city is currently considering whether to donate or relocate the statute, “or otherwise dispose of it.”
On June 7, the city painted over a mural of Rizzo in Philadelphia’s Italian Market neighborhood. A few days earlier, Mural Arts Philadelphia, a body that was charged with maintaining the monument, announced that will “cease all involvement with the mural.”
The statue represented bigotry, hatred, and oppression for too many people, for too long. It is finally gone. pic.twitter.com/30f2Skpqog
— Jim Kenney (@PhillyMayor) June 3, 2020
On Sunday, June 7, protesters in Bristol tore down the statue of slave trader Edward Colston from its plinth, rolled it down the streets, and pushed it into the water. Before that, one protester knelt down on the removed statue’s neck for eight minutes, symbolically recreating the murder of George Floyd by Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin.
The moment a statue of slave trader Edward Colston toppled into Bristol’s harbour. ‘It’s what he deserves. I’ve been waiting all my life for this moment’ someone told me in the moments after. pic.twitter.com/6juqVrsJ6V
— Sarah Turnnidge (@sarah_turnnidge) June 7, 2020
Later, Bristol-born street artist Banksy suggested an alternative installation atop the now-empty plinth of the Colston statute. “Here’s an idea that caters for both those who miss the Colston statue and those who don’t,” he posted on Instagram earlier today together with a stencil that illustrates his idea.
“We drag him out the water, put him back on the plinth, tie cable round his neck and commission some life size bronze statues of protestors in the act of pulling him down. Everyone happy. A famous day commemorated.”
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. . What should we do with the empty plinth in the middle of Bristol? Here’s an idea that caters for both those who miss the Colston statue and those who don’t. We drag him out the water, put him back on the plinth, tie cable round his neck and commission some life size bronze statues of protestors in the act of pulling him down. Everyone happy. A famous day commemorated.
Local officials in Oxford joined calls to remove a statue of Victorian imperialist Cecil Rhodes from Oriel College after a large Black Lives Matter rally across the city on June 9.
Aerial view shows demonstrators gathered in the streets of Oxford, England, to demand the removal of a statue of Cecil Rhodes, a Victorian colonialist who made a fortune from mines in southern Africa and endowed Oxford University’s Rhodes scholarships. https://t.co/lqVXyCRjc5 pic.twitter.com/8iEHEzRGjv
— ABC News (@ABC) June 10, 2020
Oxford students have been demanding the removal of the monument since 2016, but the university remained defiant, agreeing only to modify the statute to “draw attention to this history [and] do justice to the complexity of the debate.”
According to the Guardian, donors warned the university that it might lose about £100 million ($127 million) in gifts if it removes the statue. But university representatives claim that their decision was not driven by financial considerations.
Richmond, the former capital city of the Confederacy, witnessed several actions against Confederate statues and sites.
On June 6, a group of protesters toppled a statue of a Confederate general Williams Carter Wickham in the city’s Monroe Park.
Elsewhere, protesters defaced statues of Confederate soldiers Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, JEB Stuart, and Jefferson Davis. Lee’s statute was tagged with “No More White Supremacy,” “Blood On Your Hands,” and “Black Lives Matter.”
On June 4, Virginia Governor Ralph Northam announced plans to remove the statue of Lee from Richmond’s Monument Avenue.
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Justice for George Floyd • The (soon to be former) Confederate statue of Robert E. Lee lit up with a message of solidarity against police violence • Last night in Richmond, Va • This photo was taken by Richmond photographer @lifefullofswag ▪️▫️▪️▫️ • • #blacklivesmatter #justiceforgeorgefloyd #blm #richmond #rvaphotographer #richmondphotographer #rvauprising #virginia #virginiaphotographer #rva #georgefloyd
“That statue has been there for a long time. It was wrong then, and it’s wrong now. So we’re taking it down,” Northam said in a press conference.
In April, Northam signed a bill that allows the state’s localities to remove Confederate monuments. The bill was supposed to go into effect on July 1, but the current Black Lives Matter protests urged cities to act earlier.
On May 31, protesters set the headquarters of the Daughters of the Confederacy memorial site on fire. The site is dedicated to the “women of the Confederate States of America” for their “self-sacrifice,” and “exemplary faith in never changing principles,” among other things.
According to reports, some protesters managed to cause damage to Stonewall Jackson memorabilia inside the building before the firefighters arrived at the site.
At the nearby Virginia Museum of Fine Arts stands Kehinde Wiley’s sculpture “Rumors of War” (2019). The sculpture, featuring a cotemporary Black American on a horse, is the artist’s response to the city’s plethora of Confederate monuments. Wiley first unveiled the sculpture in Times Square in New York in September of 2019.
Alexandria, like all great cities, is constantly changing and evolving. pic.twitter.com/CZTjlOkpfT
— Justin Wilson (@justindotnet) June 2, 2020
On June 9, protesters tore down a statue of Christopher Columbus in Richmond’s Byrd Park, set it on fire while wrapped with an American flag, dragged it to a nearby lake, and plunged it into the water.
Video: The Christopher Columbus statue in Richmond’s Byrd Park was torn down, set on fire with an American flag, dragged, and then tossed into a lake.
— Resist Programming 🛰 (@RzstProgramming) June 10, 2020
Editor’s note 6/10/2020 4:00pm EDT: This article has been updated to include new events in Boston, Oxford, and Richmond that occurred after its original publication on June 9.