Books

The Rise of Paleoart, and the Artist’s Role in Our Visions of Dinosaurs

Paleoart: Visions of the Prehistoric Past, 1830-1980 argues for the art history importance of dinosaur illustrations, as they shape our understanding of this extinct world through the visual culture of the present.

Charles R. Knight, "Laelaps" (1897), the predators may represent paleontologists Othniel C. Marsh and Edward Drinker Cope, whose intense competition defined early American paleontology (courtesy American Museum of Natural History)
Charles R. Knight, “Laelaps” (1897), the predators may represent paleontologists Othniel C. Marsh and Edward Drinker Cope, whose intense competition defined early American paleontology (courtesy American Museum of Natural History)

Earlier this summer, I visited a quiet park in south London, where families pushed strollers around a small lake, and solitary people read books on benches in the sun. Nestled in the foliage by the water is a curious relic from the Crystal Palace Exhibition which gives the Crystal Palace Park its name: a herd of concrete dinosaurs, lazing with gaping jaws, and standing scaly and proud by the trees. The prehistoric creatures were made by artist Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins in the 1850s, and are recognized as the world’s first dinosaur sculptures. Yet they don’t look quite how we envision dinosaurs today; the Iguanodons appear like rotund iguanas, the Dicynodonts like overgrown turtles, although contemporary knowledge suggests they never had shells.

Cover of <em>Paleoart: Visions of the Prehistoric Past</em> (courtesy Taschen)
Cover of Paleoart: Visions of the Prehistoric Past (courtesy Taschen)

While their accuracy may vary (and is closer than many give him credit for), Hawkins was working with the most cutting edge 19th-century knowledge on dinosaurs to create sculptures both scientific and compellingly artistic. Paleoart has rarely been considered as part of the visual movements of the 19th and 20th centuries. Nevertheless, as writer Zoë Lescaze explores in Paleoart: Visions of the Prehistoric Past, 1830-1980, out this month from Taschen, it has been vibrantly present, whether in the dynamic Art Nouveau mosaics by Heinrich Harder at the Berlin Aquarium (reconstructed in the 1980s by Hans Jochen Ihle following their destruction in WWII), or the foreboding postwar depictions of mammoths and early humanity by Czech artist Zdeněk Burian.

“I wanted to write this book precisely because paleoart is not a widely recognized genre, even though images of dinosaurs and their world are everywhere,” Lescaze told Hyperallergic. “It’s a fairly new branch of natural history illustration — the first painting of prehistoric reptiles only appeared in 1830 — and I’m interested in how artists and scientists collectively formed our current ideas of prehistory through these images.”

Paleoart: Visions of the Prehistoric Past, 1830-1980
Heinrich Harder, reconstructed by Hans Jochen Ihle, “Pteranodon” (1982), the original was destroyed when explosives blasted the Berlin Aquarium in November 1943, destroying Harder’s mosaics on the façade. In 1982, the Aquarium reconstructed the mosaics, using photographs, tile fragments, and Harder’s original plans (courtesy TASCHEN)

Paleoart is a monstrous book in size, visuals, and design; take off its dust jacket, adorned with Alexei Petrovich Bystrow’s 1933 painting of an Inostrancevia with crimson Pareiasaurus flesh dripping from its teeth, and a scaly cover embedded with a dinosaur footprint is revealed. Tracking down this art was not easy and Lescaze had to delve into a diverse array of institutional and private archives, with some of the pieces published for the first time in the book. For instance, she describes in Paleoart how much of Burian’s “finest works languish out of sight, locked in museum storage” in the Czech Republic. Similarly, Hawkins’s London dinosaurs were abandoned for decades after the Crystal Palace burned in 1936, only later saved from the overgrowth and restored.

“Because fresh fossil discoveries tend to render older works of paleoart scientifically obsolete, many outdated images are neglected, lost, or destroyed,” Lescaze explained. “Some pieces in this book are still on public display, but finding the others involved visiting natural history museums, libraries, archives, universities, and private collections around the United States, United Kingdom, Europe, and Russia.”

Philip Henry Delamotte, "Model-Room at the Crystal Palace" (1853), showing concrete dinosaurs being built in a workshop on the grounds of the Crystal Palace, London (courtesy TASCHEN)
Philip Henry Delamotte, “Model-Room at the Crystal Palace” (1853), showing concrete dinosaurs being built in a workshop on the grounds of the Crystal Palace, London (courtesy TASCHEN)

Paleoart is arranged chronologically, and flipping through its pages, some which fold out into panoramas of idyllic tableaux of the “Age of Reptiles” or bloody battles of dinosaur chaos, you can see how our idea of what a dinosaur looks like evolved. In one delightfully anachronistic mash-up from 1889, dinosaurs and mammoths mingle together, with one wooly mammoth grabbing a unicorn with its trunk. An incredibly detailed 1984 terracotta installation by Alexander Mikhailovich Belashov at the Moscow Paleontological Museum shows more familiarly lithe and reptilian dinosaurs, but the whole scene of Earth evolution is crowned by the Virgin Mary and Jesus.

Ely Kish, "Tyrannosaurus and Edmontosaurus" (1976) (courtesy Eleanor Kish, © Canadian Museum of Nature)
Ely Kish, “Tyrannosaurus and Edmontosaurus” (1976) (courtesy Eleanor Kish, © Canadian Museum of Nature)

Adolphe-François Pannemaker in the 19th century also added a biblical tone to his illustrations, with volcanoes bursting and lightning striking in one rather apocalyptic piece, while other artists in those early paleoart days favored the battling ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs, their ocean confrontations referencing Victorian naval conflicts. Later in the 1970s to 1990s, Ely Kish painted the mass extinction of dinosaurs and extreme weather environments, her dramatic scenes echoing the contemporary anxiety about climate change and environmental catastrophe. And sometimes the double meanings of paleoart could only be glimpsed by those in the field. An 1897 painting by Charles R. Knight shows two Laelaps (Dryptosauruses) in a fight with claws and teeth bared. Some have interpreted it as a jab at paleontologists and specifically the vicious rivalry between Othniel Charles Marsh and Edward Drinker Cope, two renowned figures who were not above dynamiting each other’s dig sites.

Dinosaur bones have long been a blank slate for projecting the artistic sensibilities, popular media, and anxieties of the day onto their forms. With each reconstruction of the past, a bit of the present is reflected. As Lescaze said, “Paleoart is interesting to me because I think it often reveals as much about modern humans as it does about dinosaurs.”

Alexei Petrovich Bystrow, "Inostrancevia, devouring a Pareiasaurus" (1933); both species regularly appeared in Soviet-era paleoart (courtesy Borrissiak Paleontological Institute RAS)
Alexei Petrovich Bystrow, “Inostrancevia, devouring a Pareiasaurus” (1933); both species regularly appeared in Soviet-era paleoart (courtesy Borrissiak Paleontological Institute RAS)
Pages from <em>Paleoart: Visions of the Prehistoric Past </em> (photo of the book for Hyperallergic)
Pages from Paleoart: Visions of the Prehistoric Past (photo of the book for Hyperallergic)
Adolphe François Pannemaker, "The Primitive World" (1857), the image was the frontispiece for W. F. A. Zimmerman’s <em>Le monde avant la création de l’homme</em> (1857) (courtesy of TASCHEN)
Adolphe François Pannemaker, “The Primitive World” (1857), the image was the frontispiece for W. F. A. Zimmerman’s Le monde avant la création de l’homme (1857) (courtesy TASCHEN)
Pages from <em>Paleoart: Visions of the Prehistoric Past </em> (photo of the book for Hyperallergic)
Pages from Paleoart: Visions of the Prehistoric Past (photo of the book for Hyperallergic)
Edouard Riou; engraved by Laurent Hotelin and Alexandre Hurel, "The Ichthyosaur and the Plesiosaur (Lias Period)" (1863); from the beginning, artists and scientists portrayed ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs as enemies. The reptiles, battling above the waves, became the most prevalent motif in 19th-century paleoart (courtesy of TASCHEN)
Edouard Riou; engraved by Laurent Hotelin and Alexandre Hurel, “The Ichthyosaur and the Plesiosaur (Lias Period)” (1863); from the beginning, artists and scientists portrayed ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs as enemies. The reptiles, battling above the waves, became the most prevalent motif in 19th-century paleoart (courtesy TASCHEN)
Pages from <em>Paleoart: Visions of the Prehistoric Past </em> (photo of the book for Hyperallergic)
Pages from Paleoart: Visions of the Prehistoric Past (photo of the book for Hyperallergic)
Zdenek Burian, "Mammoth (Elephas primigenius)" (1941) (courtesy TASCHEN)
Zdenek Burian, “Mammoth (Elephas primigenius)” (1941) (courtesy TASCHEN)
Pages from <em>Paleoart: Visions of the Prehistoric Past </em> (photo of the book for Hyperallergic)
Pages from Paleoart: Visions of the Prehistoric Past (photo of the book for Hyperallergic)
Konstantin Konstantinovich Flyorov, "Tarbosaurus and Armored Dinosaur" (1955), oil on canvas (courtesy Borrissiak Paleontological Institute RAS)
Konstantin Konstantinovich Flyorov, “Tarbosaurus and Armored Dinosaur” (1955), oil on canvas (courtesy Borrissiak Paleontological Institute RAS)

Paleoart: Visions of the Prehistoric Past, 1830-1980 was released September 11 by Taschen.

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